HISTORY OF FISHINGStudents: Tyrone Ruramayi Chisenga, Feruz Kurbanov, Gonzalez Juan Ramos
Fishing, like hunting, has very ancient origins, this is because both are actions that we carry out by instinct, to survive. This is born from the need to eat That is why we cannot attribute an exact date. The first fishing tests show that this was collecting molluscs, crustaceans and algae and was normally carried out by women.
To refer to what we know today as fishing, we have to name the ancient Roman civilization. Since it was the first time that there is evidence of laws, to regulate fishing. An example of law is that the fish were a matter without an owner and that they belonged to those who caught it.
The importance of fishing, in this civilization we can appreciate, in the large number of products that they had around it, such as canned foods. The most famous being salted, highlighting cod, which was a more affordable alternative for the lower classes. since the fish was considered an exclusive product, and we will also name the sauces such as Garum, Muría, Allec and Liquamen. It is known that of the Roman Empire, the current region of Sicily was one of the most important, highlighting tuna fishing.
Figure 1. Baelo Claudia anciente city of Rome
Figure 2. Ancient representation of Garum jam
Ancient Rome is also where there is evidence of the first recreational fishing, an activity typical of the upper classes. It consisted of going to private lakes, where the dams were prepared. The collection part, as in prehistory, was still in charge of women.
Despite the fact that today we see the Roman Empire as a civilization that gave great economic and gastronomic importance to fishing, this was the case until they spread throughout present-day Greece, when it became popular. Finally, we will talk about the current situation of fishing. The activity in its essence has not changed much, although everything around it has. At present, the vast majority of Italian rivers and lakes are prohibited from fishing. A large majority of fish that were typical, such as tuna, are toxic if consumed in large quantities due to their mercury content. We do not know if this activity, which has been carried out since the beginning of humanity, will end in a few years due to overexploitation and for the good of the biosphere, since it seems the only real solution.
Fishing methods and tools
Outlined below are the most common fishing methods divided into three groups depending on how they impact the ocean habitats & ecosystem, and how much bycatch occurs:
The traditional (low impact)
The so-so (varying impact)
The nasty (highest destructive impact)
THE TRADITIONAL METHODS
In general, these lower-impact static methods are less destructive to the marine habitat & wildlife within their range. They are the most sustainable methods of gathering marine life.
HAND LINE: a single fisherman dangling a line off of their moving or stationary boat. catch is of very high quality, as it’s live when caught. Overall, on a small scale, it’s a selective & sustainable method.
POT & TRAP / CREEL: Potting is a highly selective method of fishing, since the catch is brought up alive, and sorting takes place immediately. This allows unwanted animals to be returned to the sea, making the method potentially sustainable.
DIVER FORAGED: Free divers head to the bottom of the sea to gather edible creatures. It’s impact is low, and it’s potentially one of the most species selective and least damaging fishing methods, provided harvesting is carried out responsibly.
THE NASTIER METHODS
Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying, salting, pickling and smoking. All of these techniques are still used today, but the more modern techniques of freezing and canning have taken on a large importance (Fisheries and aquaculture 2021).
As can be seen in the graph below, in 2018, Italy produced 0.3 million tonnes of fish (including molluscs and crustaceans), with a value of USD 1658.4 million. 32% of this value came from aquaculture and 68% from fisheries (that is, the capture of wild resources). Between 2008 and 2018, the quantity produced decreased by 10%, while its value decreased by 15% as can be notice in the image below:
According to Fishery System 2018 all the companies in the fishing industry, and therefore also those that process fish and market it, the total rises to 621, with a slight increase of 0.8% compared to 2011. Also employee numbers are those that better than others report a not very rosy situation: 1,558, with a decrease of 14.2% compared to 2017. However Veneto concentrates 92% of Italian shellfish production and collects 17% of the national GDP in the fishing sector.
Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying, salting, pickling and smoking. All of these techniques are still used today but the more modern techniques of freezing and canning have taken on a large importance.(Fisheries and aquaculture 2021).
In the past, the Italian canned tuna market was supplied solely by domestic production. In 1992 the Italian tuna processing industry was the fourth largest in the world, with 93 000 tonnes, after the United States (273 800 tonnes), Thailand (243 600) and Japan (98 100). Bonito del Norte White Tuna and Yellowfin Tuna. (Arroyabe Bermed 1898 factory, 2018).
Currently the Italian canned tuna industry depends on imported material, both whole and as loins. Italian imports increased by 130% in quantity and 170% in value between 1992 and 2003.
Production from South-East Asian countries (mainly Thailand and the Philippines) has major competitive advantages such as:• The supply opportunities due to proximity of the Eastern Pacific;
• The lower costs for fleets in Taiwan and Korea;
• The logistical and maritime transport advantages;
• The low labour costs in factories that are already large. (Fisheries in Italy 2018)
OECD (2021) Fisheries and aquaculture in Italy https://www.oecd.org/agriculture/topics/fisheries-and-
aquaculture/documents/report_cn_fish_ita.pdf accessed: 22/11/2022 page 2 Arroyabe Bermed 1898 factory, 2018 https://www.arroyabe.com/about-arroyabe/traditional-preparation-of-canned-fish/production/ accessed: on 22/11/2022
Fishery in Italy, 2008. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2008/397238/IPOL-
PECH_NT(2008)397238_EN.pdf accessed: 22/11/2022 p. 26.